Project TIME "Time & Childhood: a Mapping of Spain"

Studies on the academic performance of students underline the importance of good nutrition and sufficient rest for optimal school performance and the need to adapt class sessions to the circadian cycles of students. Teaching time that is not adequately synchronized with the needs and characteristics of students is, to a large extent, wasted time as well as a waste of time. Reasonable indications therefore point to a possible relationship not only between the type of school day and academic performance, but also between these and other dimensions of the quality of life of our minors such as rest, food, the times of relationship and recreation.

Furthermore, the Spanish education system is among the countries in which repetition and private classes are most often used, and in which there is a high dropout rate. The extensive use of homework, tutorials and revision classes means that a greater workload is required by students than is established as theoretical teaching time.

On the other hand, in the context of the educational reforms of the 90s (LOGSE of 1990 and LOPEGCE of 1995), some Autonomous Communities began to rethink the time organization of the school day in order to compact it in the morning. This process of time compaction that had previously occurred exceptionally due to force majeure (lack of facilities that required double shifts, rural schools far from the homes of the students, etc.) then began to be implemented. Its extension occurs first in the publicly owned Secondary education centres, in which today it is the prevailing model, and somewhat later, regionally by CCAA, it passes to the Primary Education and even Infant centres also publicly owned. It is in this context of debate about the virtues of one or another model of time organization that we are immersed now. However, there is overwhelming lack of objective data that allows evaluating the goodness of the changes introduced. That is why we consider it of the utmost relevance to contribute objective data to the debate on school hours that help to quantify and know how the time of students and their parents is distributed and how the organization of school hours is linked to the other spheres of the lives of our children and youth.


Ana Ancheta Arrabal

University of Valencia

Daniel Gabaldón Estevan

University of Valencia

(Principal Investigator)

Rodrigo Lanuza Martínez

Rodrigo Lanuza Martínez

University of Valencia

Kadri Taht

Kadri Täht

Tallinn University – School of Governance, Law and Society


  • Gabaldón-Estevan, Daniel (2021). A deshora en la escuela. Revista de Sociología de la Educación-RASE, 14(3), 256-271.
  • Gabaldón-Estevan,D., Ancheta Arrabal, A., & Obiol-Francés, S., (2021). La organización del tiempo escolar en Europa. In I. Aznar Díaz, J.A. López Núñez; M.P. Cáceres Reche; C. de Barros Camargo & F.J. HInojo Lucena  (eds.) Desempeño docente y formación en competencia digital en la era SARS COV 2. Dykinson
  • Gabaldón-Estevan, D., & Täht, K. (2020). The school schedule effect on self-reported sleep length of children and youth in Spain. Journal Sleep Research, 29, 180–180
  • Gabaldón Estevan, D. (2020). Horizontes de innovación y transformación de los tiempos escolares. In M. Fernández Enguita (ed.) La organización escolar. Repensar la caja negra para poder salir de ella. Madrid:ANELE-Rede.
  • Gabaldón Estevan, D. (2020). Tiempo de desescalada y nueva normalidad. Una oportunidad para replantear los tiempos escolares situando al alumnado en el centro. Sociedad e Infancias, 4:79-282.
  • Ancheta Arrabal, A., Quiroz, Y. del M., & Gabaldón Estevan, D. (2019). Organización del tiempo y la jornada escolar en España: Análisis comparativo de la disparidad territorial en la Educación Obligatoria.  In J. A. Marín Marín, G. Gómez García, M. Ramos Navas-Parejo, and N. Campos Soto (eds.) Inclusión, Tecnología y Sociedad: investigación e innovación en educación, Dykinson, pp. 1897–1910
  • Gabaldón Estevan, D. (2019). School time organization and the wellbeing of children and youth In ЗДОРОВЬЕ КАК РЕСУРС: V. 2.0, Nizhni Novgorod, Russian Federation: NISOTS, pp. 51-67
  • Gabaldón-Estevan, D. & Obiol-Francés, S. (2018) La jornada continua i els temps escolars. Caroig 9:15-16
  • Gabaldón-Estevan, D. & Obiol-Francés, S. (2017) Guía sobre tiempos escolares. Creativity and Educational Innovation Review 1: 12-69.